The human mind loves either/or choices. We prefer a choice of A or B. Yes or no. Chicken or beef. Simple choices give us a feeling of control, while open-ended choices give us a feeling of unease. Therefore we’d rather choose between than among.

By the same token, we prefer to break complex problems into separate parts. It’s easier to focus on a single part than to hold a complex problem in our brain. Yet without a good view of the whole problem, it’s hard to see how the parts fit together.

To complicate matters further, we’re easily fooled by our emotions and intuition—the very instruments we rely on to guide us ...

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