As pointed out in List 3.1, in many cases, the same adaptation can be either an accommodation or modification, depending on what is being measured. For example, reading an exam aloud to a student is an accommodation if the test is not assessing reading ability, just content knowledge. It would be a modification if reading skill is being measured in some way.
Following is an extensive list of possible adaptations to be considered when trying to provide a fair assessment of students’ learning. Included are recommendations to keep in mind when preparing exams for all students. Others should be considered as accommodations or modifications for students who are unable to demonstrate their comprehension or mastery of the content material under normal testing conditions and criteria.