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The ADHD Book of Lists: A Practical Guide for Helping Children and Teens with Attention Deficit Disorders, 2nd Edition by Sandra F. Rief

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4.3 Metacognitive and Other Learning Strategies

Students with ADHD benefit greatly from being taught specific learning and study strategies for school success. Chamot and O'Malley (1994) describe learning strategies as encompassing the following types or categories:

  • Metacognitive strategies. Planning for learning, monitoring one's own comprehension and production, and evaluating how well one has achieved a learning objective
  • Metacognitive knowledge. Understanding one's own mental processes and approach to learning, the nature of the learning task, and the strategies that should be effective
  • Cognitive strategies. Manipulating the material to be learned mentally (as in making images or elaborating) or physically (as in grouping items to be learned or taking notes)

Metacognitive Strategies

  • Metacognition is “thinking about thinking” and involves consciously overseeing whether you are on the right track or need to make changes in your thinking or approaches.
  • Metacognitive skills involve the following skills:
    • Previewing and planning for how to go about learning or studying the material
    • Organizing for the task, getting ready, and setting goals
    • Monitoring one's own attention, production, and comprehension
    • Self-assessment and evaluation of how well goals were met and learning took place
  • Students with ADHD have poor self-regulation and executive functioning, which is what is involved in metacognition. These children typically lack self-awareness of what is working and not working for them ...

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