5 The Politics of Faction

Faction is to party what the superlative is to the positive: Party is a political evil, and faction is the worst of all parties.

— Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke The Idea of a Patriot King

The violence of faction is the mortal disease under which popular governments have everywhere perished.

— James Madison, Federalist No. 10

THUS FAR WE HAVE EXPLORED THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ONE-PARTY state and of revolution and have examined the ideas, as well as the fears, of conspiracy and counterrevolution. We have seen that leading politicians believed they were observing the development of administrative, political, and revolutionary models that were similar, if not identical, to those in England and the revolutionary period of ...

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