117
Appendix B
Note to reader: I know this appears to be hugely complicated, but it’s not.
For starters, the name itself is a bit of a mouthful, but dont be scared away.
e ID is a fairly simple tool, but quite powerful.
INTERRELATIONSHIP DIGRAPH
(A.K.A., AN ID, A RELATIONS DIAGRAM)
What Is It?
e Interrelationship Digraph shows cause- and- eect relationships and
helps to analyze links between dierent aspects of a complicated situation.
Why Use It?
You wish to explore the cause- and- eect relationships among
many issues.
When you have limited resources and need to focus your eorts on
one or two priorities.
You have completed an anity diagram, shbone diagram, and you
want to more completely explore the relationship of the ideas.
How to Use It?
1. Create a problem statement.
Example: Jon has too many “gaps” to resolve between his Personal
Future State and his Personal Current State and he wants to nar-
row the list to two or three critical gaps to focus on for closure
this year.
2. Assemble a team and agree on the problem/ issue.
3. Develop a list of ideas.
e list can come from a brainstorming session, or from an anity
diagram, shbone diagram, etc.
118 • Appendix B
4. Record the ideas on separate note cards, pieces of paper, or sticky
notes.
5. Lay out the ideas in a circle on the wall and identify each one with a
letter or a number (Figure B.1).
6. Ask the team to work together to look for relationships between the
items. Start with A. How is A related to B? How is A related to C?
How is A related to D? And, so on. en move on to B. How is B
related to C? How is B related to D? How is B related to E? And, so on.
7. If there is a cause- and- eect relationship between two items, draw
an arrow from the cause to the eect. If no apparent relationship
exists, move on to the next pair of items.
8. Review and revise the arrows until the team reaches consensus
regarding the relationships.
9. Now, draw the Interrelationship Diagraph (ID) and tally the Ins and
Outs for each item. An In is an arrow pointing toward the item. An
Out is an arrow pointing away from the item (Figure B.2).
10. Use the ID information for planning. e items with the most Outs
are called Drivers and they are candidates for possible actions to
be taken.
Appendix B 119
J
More time
w extended
family
I
More
H
More church
attendance
E
Eat better
D
Exercise
more
C
Less time
at work
A
Lose
weight
F
Less
overnight
travel
G
More time
w Cathy &
kids
B
Lower
cholesterol
FIGURE B.1
Ideas on sticky notes positioned in a circle form the ID in Chapter 1.
120 • Appendix B
In = 1 Out = 0
In = 0 Out = 1
In = 2 Out = 0
J
More time
w extended
family
I
More
H
More church
attendance
In = 5 Out = 1
In = 0 Out = 6
In = 3 Out = 0
E
Eat better
In = 2 Out = 2
In = 0 Out = 7
In = 3 Out = 0
In = 2 Out = 2
D
Exercise
more
C
Less time
at work
A
Lose
weight
F
Less
overnight
travel
G
More time
w Cathy &
kids
B
Lower
cholesterol
FIGURE B.2
e ID from Chapter 1 with Ins and Outs tallied.
Appendix B 121
L
Improve
Customer
Satisfaction
K
Reduce
Mfg. Costs
J
Improve
Productivity
I
Reduce
Employee
Turnover
H
Reduce
Inventory
G
Reduce
Scrap &
Rework
F
Improve
Supplier
Quality
E
Improve
Safety
D
Improve
Cash
C
Improve
Prot
B
Improve
Employee
Trust
A
Improve
On‐time
Delivery
M
Improve
Employee
Satisfaction
FIGURE B.3
e ID from Chapter 2.

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