ISD is a systems approach to analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating any instructional experience. Its DNA is can be traced back to the earliest system theorists, especially Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1950). Centuries earlier, Aristotle summed up system's theory best when he wrote that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” With ISD, the elements of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation will always create a better instructional product than is possible by leaving any of these elements out of the design process.

ISD is a complex adaptive system in that instructional designers learn and adapt to changes in instructional systems elements to improve ...

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