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The C Programming Language, Second Edition by Dennis M. Ritchie, Brian W. Kernighan

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CHAPTER 7: Input and Output

Input and output facilities are not part of the C language itself, so we have not emphasized them in our presentation thus far. Nonetheless, programs interact with their environment in much more complicated ways than those we have shown before. In this chapter we will describe the standard library, a set of functions that provide input and output, string handling, storage management, mathematical routines, and a variety of other services for C programs. We will concentrate on input and output.

The ANSI standard defines these library functions precisely, so that they can exist in compatible form on any system where C exists. Programs that confine their system interactions to facilities provided by the standard library ...

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