If you come from the software penetrationtesting world, you’re probably already familiar with attack surfaces. For the rest of us, attack surface refers to all the possible ways to attack a target, from vulnerabilities in individual components to those that affect the entire vehicle.

When discussing the attack surface, we’re not considering how to exploit a target; we’re concerned only with the entry points into it. You might think of the attack surface like the surface area versus the volume of an object. Two objects can have the same volume but radically different surface areas. The greater the surface area, the ...

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