Problems in cases are the effects of causes such as actions, processes, activities, or forces. Many problem-diagnosis scenarios in cases concern business pathology: a manager performs poorly, a change effort fails to achieve its goals, and a company violates laws and ethics. On the other hand, understanding success is important too. Why did Facebook become the dominant social media platform? Problems can also fall anywhere between the poles of complete success and total failure. Why, for example, did Uber create a global business with an enormous valuation, falter as it experienced multiple setbacks, and then—yet to be determined—either recover or fade away?

At some point, you are probably ...

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