Theodotos son of Vettenos, priest and head of the synagogue, rebuilt the synagogue for the reading of the Law and for the study of the precept. . . .
—Theodotos Inscription, Jerusalem, c. 50
It was said in the name of Rabbi Hosea that in every synagogue there was an elementary school and a Talmud school.
—Talmud of the Land of Israel, Megilla 3:1, 73–74
WAS THE RELIGIOUS NORM REGARDING THE READING AND THE STUDY of the Torah in the synagogue implemented in the centuries following the compilation of the Mishna? Did world Jewry implement universal primary education centuries before any other population? Do the historical facts support the prediction of our theory that because investment in ...