The Complete Graphic Designer
178
Combinatory play
According to Paul Rand, this is when the designer takes
two ideas that are seemingly unrelated and then com-
bines them into a new visual image or metaphor.
Corporate identity
The “persona” of a company or organization that is
communicated through the consistent application of
a logo, color palette, and overall design to all forms of
visual communications directed at its target audience.
Counterform
In typography, this is the negative space within a letter-
form, such as the interior of a lowercase “e, “a, or “g.
Creative brief
A document developed in conjunction with the client
to help guide the design process, which details specifi c
information for use when solving a design problem,
such as project goals and objectives, demographics of
the target audience, a profi le of the competition, and
deliverable dates.
Crop
Trimming part of a photograph or illustration so that
undesirable or unnecessary elements are eliminated.
Demographics
Statistical information such as age, gender, ethnicity,
income level, and preferences that categorize people
into distinct interest groups.
Depth of fi eld
The area of an image that is in focus. A short depth of
eld is one in which objects in the foreground appear to
be in sharper detail while those in the background are
blurry.
Die
Sharp metal rules mounted on a board for making die
cuts, or a solid metal block used for stamping foil or an
impression on paper.
Die cut
A decorative or unusual cut made in paper with a
metal die.
Dot gain
When halftone dots print larger on paper than they are
on fi lms or plates, they reduce detail and lower contrast.
Uncoated papers tend to cause more dot gain than
coated papers. Also called dot spread and press gain.
Emboss
A raised impression on the surface of paper produced
by pressing it between two dies.
End caps
Shelves or bins at the end of an aisle in retail stores
where products are placed for maximum visibility to
consumers.
Endorsed brands
Brands associated with their parent organization or
company even though their market presence is power-
ful on its own.
Fibonacci Sequence
A sequence of numbers in which each number is the
sum of the preceding two, such as the following: 1, 1, 2,
3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34
Finish
Surface characteristics of paper. Examples of fi nishes
include laid, linen, and vellum.
Focus group
A group of people with similar preferences and attri-
butes that are selected to test a product or process and
provide feedback. They are usually paid a small stipend
for their time.
Foil stamp
A fi nishing technique in which metallic or colored
foil is transferred onto a sheet of paper using heat
and pressure.
TB
Provision-Complete Graphic Designer
CD109-59/4028
1st
proof
CGD p144-192_Text file_.indd 178CGD p144-192_Text file_.indd 178 1/20/09 3:25:12 PM1/20/09 3:25:12 PM

Get The Complete Graphic Designer now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.