The page number and other copy in the lower portion
of a page, typically a title or issue date if it’s a periodical.
Free association
A brainstorming technique in which any thought, word,
or idea that comes to mind about a particular subject
is written down for further exploration, such as colors,
smells, visual metaphors, etc.
Golden Ratio
An aesthetically pleasing ratio used in Classical archi-
tecture and design, which is found throughout nature.
The ratio of two sides is 1:1.618.
Graphic standards manual
A manual created by a designer to instruct a client on
the appropriate and consistent use of the elements of
their corporate identity. Guidelines are created so that
anyone designing materials will know the “rules” of how
the company’s logos, colors, layouts, etc. should appear
to maintain consistency across their program.
An invisible framework of guides that allows the designer
to organize and arrange elements on a page.
The white space between columns of type or between
pages on a two-page spread.
Halftone pattern
Reproducing a continuous tone image by photograph-
ing it through a fi ne screen to convert the image into a
series of dots.
A title for a piece of visual communication, usually less
than one sentence in length, which briefl y describes the
subject matter to follow.
High-context society
Societies in which shared cultural experiences and
education allow for more symbolism and meaning to be
embedded into the design so a literal interpretation is
not necessary. (See Low-context society)
Horizon line
In a publication such as a book or magazine, this is the
place where the majority of text will align near the top of
the page. It is in a consistent spot so that when a reader
turns the page they know where to begin reading again.
House sheet
Paper that printers buy in bulk and keep in stock for
print jobs. This is usually a medium-quality paper avail-
able in both coated and uncoated sheets.
In semiotics, this type of sign is a realistic representa-
tion of an object or thing. This may be a photograph or
realistic illustration of the object being represented.
Idea tree
A brainstorming technique in which an idea or concept
is written down and circled, and then related topics
branch out from this core idea.
In semiotics, this type of sign references an object or
thing, but does not necessarily resemble the actual
signifi ed object (such as a biohazard sign).
The spacing between individual letterforms.
Kinetic identity
A corporate identity in which various iterations of a logo
mark or logo type may be used in different manners
and not necessarily appear in a consistent place on
printed collateral. Patterns, colors, and images may all
be incorporated into a kinetic identity system.
Glossary of Terms
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