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The Complete Idiot's Guide to Statistics, 2nd Edition by Robert Donnelly

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Testing for Differences Between Means with Dependent Samples

Up to this point, all the samples that we have used in the chapter have been independent samples. Samples are independent if they are not related in any way with each other. This is in contrast to dependent samples, where each observation of one sample is related to an observation in another.
 
An example of a dependent sample would be a weight-loss study. Each person is weighed at the beginning (Population 1) and end (Population 2) of the program. The change in weight of each person is calculated by subtracting the Population 2 weights from the Population 1 weights. Each observation from Population 1 is matched to an observation in Population 2. Dependent samples are tested differently ...

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