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The Complete Idiot's Guide to Statistics, 2nd Edition by Robert Donnelly

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Independent Versus Dependent Variables

Suppose I would like to investigate the relationship between the number of hours that a student studies for a statistics exam and the grade for that exam (uh-oh). The following table shows sample data from six students whom I randomly chose.
Data for Statistics Exam
673
def•i•ni•tion
The independent variable (x) causes variation in the dependent variable (y).
674
Wrong Number
Exercise caution when deciding which variable is independent and which is dependent. Examine the relationship from both directions ...

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