A convenient way to calculate binomial probabilities is to rely on our friend Excel, with its BINOMDIST function. This built-in function has the following characteristics:

BINOMDIST(*r, n, p,* cumulative)

where:

cumulative = FALSE if you want the probability of exactly *r* successes cumulative = TRUE if you want the probability of *r* or fewer successes

For instance, Figure 9.2 shows the BINOMDIST function being used to calculate the probability that Kaylee will bring back exactly two papers during the next five days.

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