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The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD® Operating System, Second Edition by George V. Neville-Neil, Robert N.M. Watson, Marshall Kirk McKusick

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Chapter 14. Transport-Layer Protocols

Chapter 13 covers network-layer protocols that are responsible for moving individual datagrams across the Internet. This chapter moves up a layer in the network stack to discuss protocols that handle end-to-end data movement. Unlike the network-layer protocols, IPv4 and IPv6, transport-layer protocols have no knowledge of intermediate systems such as routers. They only have knowledge of endpoints within the network, the senders and receivers of data.

The protocols at the network layer present data to applications as either individual messages or streams of bytes. The UDP protocol handles data in discrete messages. The TCP protocol handles data as streams of bytes. The SCTP protocol handles multiple streams ...

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