3. What’s Wrong with This Model?

Software’s Waterfall ModelAfter Royce [1970], “Managing the development of large software systems,” and Boehm [1988], “A spiral model of software development and enhancement.” Royce © 1970 IEEE. Boehm © 1988 IEEE.

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Sometimes the problem is to discover what the problem is.

GORDON GLEGG [1969], THE DESIGN OF DESIGN

A designer makes things. ... Typically his making process is complex. There are more variables—kinds of possible moves, norms, and interrelationships of these—than can be represented in a finite model.

DONALD A. SCHÖN [1984],THE REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER

In fact, every designer will recognize the Rational ...

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