IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURES

Francis Crick (1916–2004), Rosalind Franklin (1920–58), James Watson (1928–), Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004)

BEFORE

1910–29 US biochemist Phoebus Levene describes the chemical components of DNA.

1944 US researchers Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod, and Maclyn McCarty show that DNA determines inheritance.

AFTER

1990 British researchers, led by embryologist Ian Wilmut, successfully clone an adult mammal—a sheep named Dolly.

2003 Scientists complete the mapping of the entire human genome.

The discovery of the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in 1953 is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs to date. It offered ...

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