Richard Dawkins (1941–)


1963 British biologist William Donald Hamilton writes about the “selfish interests” of the gene in The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior.

1966 American biologist George C. Williams proposes in his book Adaptation and Natural Selection that altruism is a result of selection taking place at the level of the gene.


1982 Richard Dawkins argues in The Extended Phenotype that the study of an organism should include analysis of how its genes affect the surrounding environment.

2002 Stephen Jay Gould critiques Dawkins’ theory in The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, which revisits and refines ...

Get The Ecology Book now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.