IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Richard Dawkins (1941–)

BEFORE

1963 British biologist William Donald Hamilton writes about the “selfish interests” of the gene in The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior.

1966 American biologist George C. Williams proposes in his book Adaptation and Natural Selection that altruism is a result of selection taking place at the level of the gene.

AFTER

1982 Richard Dawkins argues in The Extended Phenotype that the study of an organism should include analysis of how its genes affect the surrounding environment.

2002 Stephen Jay Gould critiques Dawkins’ theory in The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, which revisits and refines ...

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