IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Jane Lubchenco (1947–)

BEFORE

1388 England’s Parliament makes it illegal to throw waste into public watercourses such as ditches and rivers.

1970s British scientist James Lovelock and American microbiologist Lynn Margulis develop the Gaia hypothesis.

AFTER

1992 Canadian ecologist William Rees introduces the concept of the “ecological footprint” to describe human impact on the environment.

2000 Dutch Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen popularizes the idea that the world has entered a new geological epoch known as the Anthropocene, or “Age of Man.” This era recognizes the monumental and often dangerous ecological impacts humans ...

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