IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Vandana Shiva (1952–)

BEFORE

1966 A new high-yielding strain of rice known as IR8 leads to a big increase in production in several rice-growing countries. First developed in the Philippines, it is also called “miracle rice.”

AFTER

1994 The World Trade Organization introduces the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement.

2004 After protests by farmers who developed the crop, the Monsanto company’s patent on an Indian strain of wheat known as Nap Hal is revoked.

2012 Indian initiative Navdanya International launches its worldwide Seed Freedom campaign to protect food sovereignty and safety. ...

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