Alfred J. Lotka (1880–1949), Vito Volterra (1860–1940)


1798 British economist Thomas Malthus shows that the rate at which the population changes increases as the size of the population grows.

1871 In Lewis Carroll’s novel Through the Looking Glass, the Red Queen tells Alice, “you have to run just to stay in the same place.”


1973 American biologist Leigh Van Valen proposes the Red Queen effect, which describes the constant “arms race” between predators and prey.

1989 The Arditi–Ginzburg equations offer another model of predator–prey dynamics by including the impact of the ratio between predator and prey.

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