IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Joseph Connell (1923–)

BEFORE

1856 British scientists John Lawes and Joseph Gilbert start the Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted, to test how different fertilizers affect the yield of hay meadows.

1938 Harry Hatton, a French ecologist, conducts one of the first marine ecology field experiments, on barnacles on the Brittany coast.

AFTER

1966 American ecologist Robert Paine removes the starfish Pisaster ochraceus from tide pools in a Pacific coast ecosystem, to test the effect of its absence on other species.

1968 The Experimental Lakes Area, comprising 58 freshwater lakes, is established in Ontario, Canada, to study the ...

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