IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Robert Paine (1933–2016)

BEFORE

1950s In Kenya, farmer and conservationist David Sheldrick introduces elephants to Tsavo East National Park, and discovers this results in a major increase in biodiversity.

1961 Fieldwork by American ecologist Joseph Connell on Scotland’s rocky shores shows that removing predatory whelks alters the distribution of their barnacle prey.

AFTER

1994 In the US, a group of ecologists led by Brian Miller publishes a paper explaining the valuable role prairie dogs play as a keystone species.

2016 Fieldwork leads marine ecologist Sarah Gravem to conclude that organisms can be keystone species in ...

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