IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Robert Hooke (1635–1703)

BEFORE

1267 English philosopher Roger Bacon discusses the use of optics for looking at “the smallest particles of dust” in his Opus Majus Volume V.

1661 Microscopic drawings by English architect Christopher Wren impress Charles II, who commissions more drawings from Robert Hooke.

AFTER

1683 Dutch amateur scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek uses a microscope to observe bacteria and protozoa, and publishes his findings with the Royal Society of London.

1798 Edward Jenner, an English physician and scientist, develops the world’s first vaccine—for smallpox—and publishes An Inquiry into the Causes and ...

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