IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Carl Linnaeus (1707–78)

BEFORE

1682 John Ray, an English botanist, proposes that the plant kingdom be divided into trees and two families of herbaceous plants.

1694 French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort publishes Eléments de Botanique. This beautifully illustrated book becomes the botanical classification benchmark for half a century.

AFTER

1957 Sir Julian Huxley is the first to use the term “clade” to describe a common ancestor and all of its descendants.

1969 Robert Whittaker, an American ecologist, argues for a five-kingdom categorization of life: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

Before the 18th ...

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