IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Louis Pasteur (1822–95)

BEFORE

1683 Dutch amateur scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek uses a microscope to observe bacteria and protozoa.

1796 Edward Jenner carries out the first vaccination, using the cowpox virus to protect against smallpox.

AFTER

1926 American microbiologist Thomas Rivers distinguishes between viruses and bacteria.

1928 While studying influenza, Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

2007 An inventory of all the microbes associated with a healthy human body is completed.

Microbes—bacteria, molds, viruses, protozoa, and algae—are present in every environment, living in soil, water, ...

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