Albert Frank (1839–1900)


1840 German botanist Theodor Hartig discovers a network of filaments on the roots of pine trees.

1874 Hellmuth Bruchmann, a German biologist, notes the “Hartig net” is made of fungal filaments.


1937 A.B. Hatch, an American botanist, shows a beneficial relationship between pine trees and mycorrhizal fungus.

1950 Swedish botanists Elias Melin and Harald Nilsson show that plant roots can extract more nutrients from the soil with the aid of mycorrhizae.

1960 Another Swedish botanist, Erik Björkman, shows that plants pass carbon into mycorrhizal fungi in exchange for phosphate and nitrate. ...

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