Konrad Lorenz (1903–89), Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907–88)


1872 Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals posits that behavior is instinctive and has a genetic basis.

1951 Nikolaas Tinbergen’s The Study of Instinct lays down the foundations and theory behind ethology, the study of animal behavior.


1967 Desmond Morris, a British zoologist, brings ethology to bear on human behavior in his popular book The Naked Ape.

1976 British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins publishes The Selfish Gene, describing how most of an animal’s behavior is designed to pass on its genes.

Any dog owner will ...

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