IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Richard Bradley (1688–1732)

BEFORE

9th century Arab scholar Al-Jahiz describes a three-level food chain of plant matter, rats, snakes, and birds.

1717 Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observes how haddock eat shrimp and cod eat haddock.

AFTER

1749 Swedish taxonomist Carl Linnaeus introduces the idea of competition.

1768 John Bruckner, a Dutch naturalist, introduces the idea of food webs.

1859 Charles Darwin writes about food webs in On the Origin of Species.

1927 British zoologist Charles Elton’s Animal Ecology outlines principles of animal behavior, including food chains.

All animals must eat other living things ...

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