National Science Foundation (created 1950)
1926 Russian geochemist and mineralogist Vladimir Vernadsky formulates the theory of the biosphere in which everything on Earth lives.
1935 Pioneering British ecologist Arthur Tansley defines an ecosystem as encompassing all the interactions between a group of living creatures and their environment.
1992 At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, there is international consensus on the importance of protecting the biosphere.
1997 The Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is signed by 192 countries.
An in-depth understanding of ecosystems requires long-term ...