IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Stephen A. Forbes (1844–1930)

BEFORE

1799–1804 Alexander von Humboldt pioneers the field of biogeography in his travels in Latin America.

1866 German naturalist Ernst Haeckel coins the term “ecology” to describe the study of organisms in relation to their environments.

1876 After traveling extensively, British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace publishes The Geographical Distribution of Animals.

AFTER

1890s Frederic Clements proposes the notion of ecological communities.

1895 In Ecology of Plants Johannes Warming describes the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants.

The notion of a naturalist—someone who ...

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