IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Johannes Eugenius Warming (1841–1924)

BEFORE

1859 Charles Darwin’s detailed descriptions of plants and animals in their natural environment mark the start of an appreciation of what is later termed “ecology.”

AFTER

1935 British botanist Arthur Tansley publishes an article in Ecology in which he defines the term “ecosystem.”

1938 American botanists John Weaver and Frederic Clements further develop the concepts of plant communities and succession.

1995 David Attenborough’s television documentary “The Private Life of Plants” depicts plants as dynamic influencers of their environment.

Plant ecology examines how plants interact ...

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