IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Henry Chandler Cowles (1869–1939)

BEFORE

1825 Adolphe Dureau de la Malle coins the term “succession” when describing new growth in forest cuttings.

1863 Austrian botanist Anton Kerner publishes a study of plant succession in the Danube river basin.

AFTER

1916 Frederic Clements suggests that communities settle into a climax, or stable equilibrium, at the end of a succession period.

1977 Ecologists Joe Connell and Ralph Slatyer argue that succession occurs in diverse ways, highlighting facilitation (preparing the way for later species), tolerance (of lower resources), and inhibition (resisting competitors).

The Indiana ...

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