IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Richard B. Root (1936–2013)

BEFORE

1793 Alexander von Humboldt uses the word “association” to describe the mix of plant types within a particular habitat.

1917 In the US, Joseph Grinnell coins the term “niche” to describe how a species fits into its environment.

1935 British botanist Arthur Tansley identifies ecoystems—integrated biotic communities—as fundamental units of ecology.

AFTER

1989 In the US, James MacMahon suggests that it does not matter how ecological guild members use resources.

2001 Argentinian ecologists Sandra Diaz and Marcelo Cabido propose grouping species that have a similar effect on their environment. ...

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