Frederic Clements (1874–1945), Victor Shelford (1877–1968)


1793 Alexander von Humboldt coins the word “association” to sum up the mix of plant types that occurs in a particular habitat.

1866 Ernst Haeckel poses the idea of the biotope, the living space for a range of plants and animals.


1966 Leslie Holdridge champions the idea of life zones based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall variations.

1973 German–Russian botanist Heinrich Walter creates a biome system that considers seasonal variations.

Different parts of the world have varying patterns of plant and animal life, but there are usually ...

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