IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURES

Frederic Clements (1874–1945), Victor Shelford (1877–1968)

BEFORE

1793 Alexander von Humboldt coins the word “association” to sum up the mix of plant types that occurs in a particular habitat.

1866 Ernst Haeckel poses the idea of the biotope, the living space for a range of plants and animals.

AFTER

1966 Leslie Holdridge champions the idea of life zones based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall variations.

1973 German–Russian botanist Heinrich Walter creates a biome system that considers seasonal variations.

Different parts of the world have varying patterns of plant and animal life, but there are usually ...

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