IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Eugene Odum (1913–2002)

BEFORE

1905 In Research Methods in Ecology, American botanist Frederic Clements writes about plant communities and how they change over time.

1935 Arthur Tansley, a British botanist, proposes the term “ecosystem” to describe a community of plants, animals, soil minerals, water, and air.

AFTER

1954 Eugene and Howard Odum’s study of the coral Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean applies the principles of holistic ecology.

1974 British environmentalist James Lovelock and American biologist Lynn Margulis first publish their Gaia hypothesis. It states that Earth is a self-regulating system that maintains ...

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