IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Alfred Wegener (1880–1930)

BEFORE

1596 Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch scholar, is one of several geographers who observe that the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean seem to “fit” each other.

AFTER

1929 British geologist Arthur Holmes proposes that convection in Earth’s mantle drives continental drift.

1943 George Gaylord Simpson dismisses fossil evidence for continental drift and argues for “stable continents.”

1962 American geologist Harry Hess explains how the seafloor spreads, by molten magma rising from below.

2015 A group of Australian scientists propose that periods of rapid evolution in the oceans were triggered by collisions ...

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