IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

James Hansen (1941–)

BEFORE

1875 In the book Climate and Change, Scottish scientist James Croll describes the climate-warming feedback effect of melting ice.

1965 Canadian biologist Charles Krebs discovers the “fence effect,” showing vole populations protected from foxes rocketing, then crashing.

1969 American planetary scientist Andrew Ingersoll highlights the “runaway greenhouse effect” that caused the planet Venus to heat up.

AFTER

2018 Ecologists in Alaska predict that the accelerating release of methane from formerly frozen lakes will increase global warming.

All parts of an ecosystem are interdependent. Any species ...

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