Franz Hölker


1000 CE The first organized system of street lighting (by oil lamps) is introduced in Muslim Spain.

1792 Scottish-born engineer William Murdock invents the gas light. Over the next half century, many cities introduce gas street lighting.

1879 American inventor Thomas Edison demonstrates the first commercially viable electric light bulb.

1976 High-brightness, high-efficiency, LED lights are introduced.


2050 The date by which Hölker and others predict that, with the global population set to exceed 9 billion, Earth’s total illuminated area will have doubled since 2016.

According to some ecologists, ...

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