IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Francis Bacon (1561–1626)

BEFORE

c.9500 BCE The first agricultural crops are cultivated in the Middle East.

340s BCE The Greek philosopher Aristotle devises a “ladder of being” with man at the top.

15th century The “Age of Discovery” begins: Europeans set out to explore the world in search of new resources.

AFTER

c.1750 New technology such as the steam engine launches the Industrial Revolution, which begins in Britain.

1866 Gregor Mendel pioneers the science of genetics, breeding 22 varieties of peas.

1970s The first experiments in genetic engineering—the direct manipulation of DNA by humans—take place.

The Renaissance ...

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