IN CONTEXT

KEY FIGURE

Gilbert White (1720–93)

BEFORE

4th century BCE Diogenes, a Greek philosopher, advocates forgoing the comforts of civilization in favor of a life “in accord with nature.”

1773 American naturalist William Bartram starts his field studies of the wildlife of the southeast US, documented in his 1791 book, Travels.

AFTER

1949 American ecologist Aldo Leopold publishes A Sand County Almanac, exploring the idea of humans’ “land ethic,” or responsibilities toward nature.

1969 Friends of the Earth is founded in the US—initially as an antinuclear group—marking the beginning of the modern Green movement.

In the late 18th century, ...

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