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The Economist Book of Isms by John Andrews

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Gallicanism A political and ecclesiastical doctrine in France asserting the freedom of French Roman Catholics from the absolute authority of the pope. The word was coined in the 19th century to describe opposition to the concept of ultramontanism (which asserted the power over Catholics in France of the pope “beyond the mountains” in Italy). But as a doctrine its roots lie in early French nationalism, in the 8th and 9th centuries, and then in the conflict between Philip IV (1268–1314), known as “the Fair”, and Pope Boniface VIII (c1235–1303 and pope 1294–1303), when the king levied a 50% tax on the clergy. After later conflicts between kings and popes, Charles VII in 1438 issued the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, giving the French church authority ...

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