These definitions and descriptions are mostly those of the author and are meant to harmonize with the message of this book. In some instances, the definitions could be made broader or more specific, but I believe that they will be of more value to the reader as stated.
The amount of actual monetary damage suffered by a party.
Any action taken by an employer where an employee suffers an adverse (detrimental) effect. Adverse actions include discharges, layoffs, demotions, suspensions, docking, and other acts of discipline.
A doctrine that implies unlawful discrimination because a particular rule or practice disproportionately affects persons in a protected class and cannot be justified ...