de facto, 39–40
de jure, 39
month’s net purchases, 39
US transactions, 39
Foreign exchange reserves
BIS Multilateral Surveillance Statistics, 53–54
developing and emerging economies, 53f
‘Foreign institutional investors’ (FIIs), 333
Foreign investment, volatility and crises
bank deregulation, 327
‘capital flow bonanza’, 327
crisis economy, 328
cross-country studies, 328
currency crisis, 328
financial integration, 327
harmonization policies, 328
liquidity and the balance-sheet, 328
negative shocks, 327
ownership, 328
short-term dollar debt, 328
Foreign ownership, 241, 242, 249, 250
Foreign portfolio investment (FPI)
amount, 108
equity market
capital account decontrol, 337
domestic financial intermediation, 337
FII framework,

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