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The Finite Element Method, 2nd Edition by S. Quek, G.R. Liu

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Chapter 6

FEM for Frames

6.1 Introduction

A frame element is formulated to model a straight bar of an arbitrary cross-section, which can deform not only in the axial direction but also in the directions perpendicular to the axis of the bar. The bar here is capable of carrying both axial and transverse forces, as well as moments. Therefore, a frame element is seen to possess the properties and capabilities of both truss and beam elements. In fact, the frame structure can be found in many real world structures. The developments of FEM equations for bar and beam elements facilitate the development of FEM equations for frame structures in this chapter.

The frame element developed in this chapter is also known in many commercial software packages as ...

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