Part IVGlobal Perspectives and Challenges: Case Studies
In this day and age, it is important to understand the effects of globalization on the regions of the world from the point of view both of history and of current conditions. The purpose of Part IV is to provide such understanding in the form of reviews of the state of plurilingualism in each of several major areas of the world. The chapters in Part IV examine the state of plurilingualism in the Americas, in Europe, in Southern Africa, in China and the Chinese diaspora, in South and Central Asia, and finally, in North Africa and the Middle East. These chapters cover many of the issues discussed in more general terms in earlier chapters, including the status of bilingual education, practices of diglossia, code-mixing and code-switching, the relevance of interference and borrowing to language change, and the varying effects of language maintenance, shift, and endangerment as they bear on the status of plurilingualism in many different settings around the world.
Part IV begins with chapters on the Americas. In Chapter 28 ‘Bilingualism in North America,’ William Mackey surveys the situation of plurilingualism in the United States and Canada with respect to the geography of plurilingualism, the character of plurilingual communities, the future of North American plurilingualism, and, finally, the state of research resources on plurilingualism in North America. Anna María Escobar’s Chapter 29 ‘Bilingualism ...