23Translanguaging Across Contexts

SARAH J. McCARTHEY IDALIA NUÑEZ AND CHAEHYUN LEE

Introduction

In the last 10 years, the term translanguaging has gained prominence among bilingual educators. While the phenomenon of speakers shuttling between and among languages has been documented from historical times, García and Leiva (2014) have clarified the term as both an act of bilingual performance and a pedagogical approach to teaching. A distinction between the spontaneous use of two languages and the intentional practice of alternating between languages for pedagogical purposes has been made by Cenoz and Gorter (2017). Cenoz (2017) elaborated upon the distinction, “Pedagogical translanguaging is planned by the teacher inside the classroom and can refer to the different languages for input and output or to other planned strategies based on the use of students' resources from the whole linguistic repertoire. Spontaneous translanguaging refers to fluid discursive practices that can take place inside or outside the classroom” (p. 194).

In this chapter, we outline the historical context, definitions, and the underlying theory of translanguaging before identifying several critiques. The literature review includes studies of translanguaging within formal educational settings and then focuses on research conducted in families and communities (informal settings). We analyze examples from two of the authors' language data (Spanish and Korean) to demonstrate current translanguaging practices ...

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