Fall of the Roman Republic


509 bce Rome becomes a republic in which a small number of wealthy families share power.

202 bce Rome defeats Carthage in North Africa and the empire expands rapidly.

88–82 bce Civil war between rival generals Sulla and Marius tips the republic into crisis.


31 bce Octavian’s victory at the Battle of Actium leads to his accession as Rome’s first emperor and the end of the republic.

79 ce Vesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii.

2nd century ce The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent, with a population of around 60 million people.

On March 15, 44 bce, the life of Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, came ...

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