Imperial economies


1838 The first Atlantic crossing under steam power alone is made.

1858 The first transatlantic telegraph cable is laid.


1869 The Suez Canal opens, slashing sailing times between Europe and the East.

1878 The Gold Standard is adopted in Europe; the US follows suit in 1900.

1891 The Trans-Siberian railway is begun. It is completed in 1905.

1899–1902 Britain aims to secure control of South Africa in the Second Boer War.

1914 The Panama Canal, linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opens.

The ceremonial opening, on November 17, 1869, of the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean and the Red seas, was an emphatic ...

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